The Paris Agreement reflects the collective belief of almost every nation on the planet that climate change is humanity`s war to fight it, and reveals America`s climate-sceptics – including Trump – as global outliers. Indeed, the mobilization of support for climate action across the country and around the world gives hope that the Paris Agreement has marked a turning point in the fight against climate change. We can all contribute to the cause by looking for ways to reduce contributions to global warming, at the individual, local and national levels. The effort will be worth the reward of a safer and cleaner world for future generations. The initial commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was extended until 2012. This year, at COP18 in Doha, Qatar, delegates agreed to extend the agreement until 2020 (without some industrialized countries withdrawing). They also reaffirmed their commitment made at COP17 in Durban, South Africa, in 2011, to create a new global climate treaty by 2015 that would require all major emitters not included in the Kyoto Protocol, such as China, India and the United States, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The new treaty – which was to become the Paris Agreement – was to completely replace the Kyoto Protocol by 2020. However, the Paris agreement came into force earlier than expected in November 2016. The United States, the world`s second-largest emitter, is the only country to withdraw from the agreement, a move by President Donald J.
Trump that came into effect in November 2020. Some other countries have not officially approved the agreement: Angola, Eritrea, Iran, Iraq, Libya, South Sudan, Turkey and Yemen. “France has brought openness and experience to diplomacy and mutual respect to these discussions,” said Stern, one of the world`s climate leaders. “They made sure everyone listened, that they were consulted. There was a great sense of openness, professional diplomacy and know-how. The NRDC is working to make the Global Climate Climate Action Summit a success by inspiring more ambitious commitments to the historic 2015 agreement and enhanced pollution reduction initiatives. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.
 The EU and its member states are individually responsible for ratifying the Paris Agreement. There was a strong preference for the EU and its 28 Member States to simultaneously table their ratification instruments to ensure that neither the EU nor its Member States commit to commitments that belong exclusively to the other and there was concern that there was a disagreement on each Member State`s share of the EU-wide reduction target. just as Britain`s vote to leave the EU could delay the Paris pact.  However, on 4 October 2016, the European Parliament approved the ratification of the Paris Agreement and the EU tabled its ratification instruments on 5 October 2016 with several EU Member States.  Kinder Morgan, developer of Canada`s controversial trans-mountain pipeline, is the latest large-scale company to reduce shareholder heat due to its climate effects. To change this future, the climate target of the Paris Agreement, which is well below 2 degrees C, must be achieved. Global emissions must be halved by the next decade and net zero by the middle of the century, says energy economist Nebojsa Nakicenovic, former CEO of the International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA) in Austria.